Technology Tip of the Month
June, 1996: Designing Lesson Plans
That Incorporate Technology
by Deborah Healey
All good lesson plans begin with the same basic elements:
Gagne's nine events of instruction provide another look at the same thing: effective communication of information for better learning. These are:
- Clearly-stated objectives that can be put into terms students understand
- Review of relevant prior knowledge
- Opportunities for students to use varied learning styles
- visual: textual and graphical
- Practice in the target skill/concept
- Some form of feedback so students know if they're getting it right
(from Gagne, R.M. & Briggs, L.J. (1979). Principles of instructional
design (2nd ed.). New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
- Gain the learner's attention
- State the objectives
- Recall prior knowledge
- Present the stimulus (something to respond to)
- Provide guidance
- Elicit performance (decision-making in realistic situations)
- Provide feedback relevant to the situation
- Assess performance
- Enhance retention and transfer to different situations
So how are technology-enhanced lessons different?
Adding technology means keeping a few additional areas in mind:
- Where are the outlets? Do you need extension cords? Power strips?
- Does the room need to be darkened? Will it get dark enough for
people to see (especially with an LCD panel)? Can everyone sit where the
screen is visible?
- Special settings
- Is the video cued? Is the requisite software on the disk or easily
findable? If you're using more than one video clip or program, how
smoothly and quickly can you go from one to the other?
If at all possible, do a dry run ahead of time on the equipment you'll
be using--it's much easier to add missing pieces ahead of time than in
the middle of a class.
- Classroom management
- If you want to get the whole class's attention, the best way is to
move the students to another room, one without computers. The second-best
way is to have students turn off their monitors when you want
them to listen to what you're saying. It is very difficult to gain the
class's attention in the middle of the session, so plan any off-computer
activities for the start or end of the session.
- Backup plan
- Always have a backup plan to use if:
- One component is missing or doesn't work
- Nothing will run on the equipment you have brought to class
- There's no electricity (in that case, maybe it's time for a quick
trip outside or to a local coffee shop...)
Lesson Plan Template
Here's a template you can modify to suit your needs; send me your
additions and suggestions!
Objective to write on the board:
--Comments for yourself about the objective:
Material required (include power supplies and peripherals, text,
graphics, audio, video):
Configuration of the learning space:
Review/recall of prior knowledge:
Presentation of the objective:
--Primary learning style:
--Additional learning styles and how they will be accessed:
Practice format (including learning styles):
How feedback will be given:
Later review (what learning styles?):
Question/activity to enhance retention and transfer to different
Sample Lesson Plan
This assumes students at a high-intermediate level who are working on
human rights issues and who have used the CD-ROMs before.
- Objective to write on the board:
- Find the main idea and
details in an article about the person or place you have chosen.
- --Comments for yourself about the objective:
- Make sure students who
missed the previous class get the handout and extra help getting started
- Material required:
- Working in the lab with CDs: Encarta,
Amnesty Interactive, Grolier's Encyclopedia. Grolier's and
Encarta need to be installed in order to run.
- Configuration of the learning space:
- Students start by looking
at the board (with the computer monitors turned off to encourage paying
attention to the teacher), then work in pairs or threesomes at the
- Review/recall of prior knowledge:
- Off-computer review of the handout
on finding the main idea from the last class, then on-computer review of
using the Search tools for the CD-ROMs.
- Presentation of the objective:
- List on the board: Choose a person
or place from the readings we've done in class. Work with two partners
to find an article about that person or place. Write the name of the CD,
the title of the article, the main idea, and 2-4 supporting details from
- --Primary learning style:
- --Additional learning styles and how they will be
- visual--graphical (if there is a related graphic on the CD);
aural--students discuss the main idea and supporting details with their
group; kinesthetic--paging through and typing the inform ation.
- Practice format (including learning styles):
- Students read the
article and write the main idea and supporting details after discussing
them with their group.
- How feedback will be given:
- Whole-class discussion of what they
found; teacher evaluation from what students have written.
- Later review (what learning styles?):
- Students explain what they
found to the group (oral/aural style)
- Question/activity to enhance retention and transfer to different
- Students do an additional search for homework; what they
find will be incorporated into a short oral and written report.
- Backup plan A:
- Go to the library and look up the information there,
either in the print reference works or via CD-ROMs.
- Backup plan B:
- Discuss heroes from your country; what qualities do
they have? How do they compare to the people in the readings from last time?
While each teacher will need to customize lesson plans to fit his/her
setting, this template can serve as a place to start. Good luck!
If you have questions, comments, or for more information,
contact Deborah Healey, dhealey AT uoregon DOT edu
updated 26 June, 2009