ELI 162
Using Sources

Academic papers have sources: books and articles that you have gathered information from. The list of sources is a bibliography. One format to use in this class is listed below, and a sample bibliography is after the list.

Types of Sources


Author's last name, first initial. (year). Title with only the first word capitalized. Place: Publisher.

1st author's last name, first initial & 2nd author's last name, first initial. (year). Title. Place: Publisher.

Articles in magazines and journals

Author's last name, first initial. (year). Article title with only the first word capitalized. Magazine Title With All Major Words in Capital Letters (Month day), pages.

Author's last name, first initial. (year). Article title with only the first word capitalized. Magazine Title With All Major Words in Capital Letters, volume, (issue), pages.

Articles in books

(these will have an editor's name on the front, and different chapters will be written by different people)

Author's last name, first initial. (year). Article title. In Editor's first initial last name (Ed.) Book title (pp. pages). Place: Publisher.

Electronic publications--CD-ROM

Author/editor. (Year). Title. In Source (edition), [Type of medium]. Available: Supplier/Database identifier or number [Access date].

Electronic publications--World Wide Web, ftp, Gopher

Author/editor. (Year). Title (edition), [Type of medium]. Producer (optional). Available Protocol (e.g., HTTP): Site/Path/File [Access date].

* Write 'No date' when the electronic publication date is not available.

Sample Bibliography

Healey, D. (No date). Verb flash cards. [Online]. Available FTP: ftp://archive.latrobe.edu.au/pub/CELIA/english [1996, March 14].

Jones, J. (1989). Technology today. In S. Johnson (Ed.), Modern technology (pp. 15-35). London: Oxford.

Lott, J.R. and Mustard, D.B. (1997). Crime, deterrence, and right-to-carry concealed handguns. Available HTTP: http://law.lib.uchicago.edu/faculty/lott/guncont.html [1996, 27 September].

Nelan, Bruce W. (1994).Not so welcome anymore. In 1994 Time Reference Almanac, [CD-ROM]. Available: Compact Publishing [1996, October 10].

Smith, J. (1983). The computer in our lives. New York: Macmillan.

Smith, J & Wilson, M. (1989). Teachers need help. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Tayli, M. & Al-Salamah, A.I. (1990). Building bilingual microcomputer systems. Communications of the ACM (May), 495-504.

Wilson, M. (1991). Why I like machines. Technological Horizons in Education Journal (September 15), 34-36.

Citations in the Text

When you refer to sources in your paper, use the short reference form at the end of the sentence or paragraph from the source. The general format of the short reference form is:

(author's last name, year)

If you are quoting directly, add the page at the end:

(author's last name, year: p. #)

For example:


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Last updated 9 September 1999 by D.Healey, Deborah.Healey@orst.edu